The Reds' captain was withdrawn in the early stages of Wednesday's 3-1 win over Bayern Munich in the Champions League - and Jürgen Klopp has confirmed that he is unavailable for the visit to Craven Cottage on Sunday.
However, Klopp is hopeful that Henderson will be fit after the international break, along with Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain.
Naby Keita missed the last-16 victory at the Allianz Arena due to a minor injury and the No.8 will be assessed ahead of the trip to London.
"With Hendo, we made further assessment and we know now that it’s serious enough probably to rule him out for the weekend and the international break will be long enough, hopefully, to bring him back. It’s a little one with the ankle, how it looked in the first place. It was the best scan we could get, I would say, but still not good enough. It’s not good but OK," the boss said on Friday.
"Naby, we have to see if he can train today. The boys come in a bit later today. [He had] a couple of checks - it was positive until now but we have to see if it stays positive when he goes outside.
"Oxlade, I heard nothing new about it so there’s no rush now. Of course not for the weekend anyway, but in general after international break he will be 100 per cent fit."