The Reds were jarred by a Christian Benteke brace and an Andreas Weimann strike that confined them to one of the most disappointing defeats of the season.
They now travel to Villa Park eager to make amends and keen to regain confidence on the back of defeat to Southampton.
"The Villa game came as a bit of a shock to everyone to be honest," Henderson told Liverpoolfc.com.
"During the game, they broke at us a couple of times and got a few goals. But I still think we were capable of winning the game - we had a lot of chances and we had good possession of the ball.
"Games like that hurt. They hurt a lot. After a match like that, or after any time you get beat, it affects you for a day or two, but then you need to move onto the next game as quickly as possible.
"I'll be looking forward to the game on Sunday and I'll be ready."
Paul Lambert's men are currently embroiled in a relegation fight that sees them three points clear of 18th-placed Wigan having played a game more than the Latics.
Henderson knows that at this time of the season, teams near the drop-zone manage to find an extra edge - just as Villa did in their last game when they beat QPR 3-2 in a crunch clash.
But the Liverpool midfielder is adamant that if he and his teammates approach the game in the right manner, they can rekindle the sort of form that saw them pick up consecutive wins against Swansea, Wigan and Spurs.
He said: "I think we've just got to go into the game as we always do - in a positive frame of mind, knowing that if we do it right we can definitely win the game. We'll bounce back from the Southampton game."
With eight fixtures remaining, Henderson still feels there is much to play for - and he is targeting a strong finish.
"The aim is to win every game," he said. "That's what we want to do, it's a hard task but at the end of the day, we have a lot of good players here and a lot of belief that we can do it. Every game we go into we'll look to win."