The left-back, who is currently on loan at Wolves until the end of the season, came on at half-time to play the second 45 minutes and promptly netted with his first goal for his country after 62 minutes.
Raheem Sterling was in fine form during his 63 minute run-out and also gave an assist.
Liverpool's No.31 was joined in the starting XI by Anfield teammates Shelvey, captain Jordan Henderson, who played for 74 minutes and Andre Wisdom who started at centre-back.
After going close with a rasping drive just over the bar, Sterling provided the pass for Wilfried Zaha to fire the opener.
Sterling went close to making it 2-0 after 55 minutes with a superb curler which sailed just over the top.
Then the impressive Shelvey's pinpoint cross from the right found Robinson who netted from close range to make it 2-0.
Aston Villa's Nathan Delfouneso made it 3-0 from another Shelvey assist two minutes from time.
Shelvey and co are next in action on Monday night when England U21s face Austria in Brighton.
It's now eight wins in a row for England U21s as they continue to warm up for the U21 European Championships this summer in Israel.
Reflecting on Sterling's fine display, Shelvey told ESPN: "Raheem has been doing that all season for Liverpool and it's good to see him doing it on the international stage as well.
"We need to keep it going. We've got another game on Monday night and we've got to carry on performing. We've got a big tournament in the summer to go and win."